The news came just hours after the Andalusian club's remarkable comeback against Liverpool in the Champions League, turning around a 3-0 half-time deficit to rescue a point thanks to an injury-time equalizer.
"The medical services of Sevilla FC can inform that the coach of the first team, Eduardo Berizzo, has been diagnosed with an adenocarcinoma of the prostate," the club said in a statement.
"Further tests will determine which steps to follow regarding his treatment. Sevilla FC wants to show their full support to the coach right now and wishes him a speedy recovery."
Teams from across Europe, including Berizzo's former clubs Celta Vigo and Marseille, have been quick to send their support.
Sevilla confirmed to CNN that Berizzo's players were told the news a few days ago, despite reports suggesting he had told them at half-time during the Liverpool game.
"We had to come out with a different attitude for the fans and for the boss, he made us play like that," Sevilla midfielder Ever Banega said of the team's turnaround against the English Premier League side.
Berizzo added: "I told the players that they had to play with their soul and show the pride that we have."
Roberto Firmino's brace and Sadio Mane's strike gave Liverpool a three-goal lead inside half an hour, only for Wissam Ben Yedder's double and Guido Pizarro's last-minute strike to haul Sevilla level.
Liverpool and Sevilla only need draws against Spartak Moscow and Maribor, respectively, to secure passage to the Champions League knockout stages.